basaltic to dacitic with large caldera
Notes on Vent Field Description:
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/logs/leg2_summary/leg2_summary.html, accessed 27 May 2015: "hydrothermal systems at Giggenbach volcano are well within the photic zone"; http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/logs/april18/april18.html, accessed 27 May 2015, "First Dive On Giggenbach Volcano"; NZAPLUME II 2002 cruise CTDO with attached discrete water sampling capability over the summit of volcano ‘L’; located in New Zealand's Kermadec Benthic Protection Area, http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Environmental/Seabed+Protection+and+Research/Benthic+Protection+Areas.htm, accessed 13 May 2015
Notes Relevant to Biology:
http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/background/biology/biology.html, accessed 27 May 2015
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2005 submersible PISCES V; 2002 plume only
Discovery References (text):
(plume only) C. de Ronde et al. 2007, Submarine hydrothermal activity along the mid-Kermadec Arc, New Zealand: Large-scale effects on venting. G3, 8(Q07007), doi:10.1029/2006GC001495.
New Zealand American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 (NZASRoF'05) Expedition, cruise report posted at: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05fire/logs/leg2_summary/leg2_summary.html, accessed 27 May 2015.