Notes on Vent Field Description:
located at E. Volcanic Zone; "occurrence in an area of seismic and probably volcanic activity in 1999"; "The plumes at 85° E, in their thickness, height of rise and magnitude of signals, indicate the most vigorous hydrothermal venting seen anywhere in our survey."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Pedersen et al. (2010): "Yellow, fluffy microbial mats were observed at the seafloor at the 85°E site, and these were commonly associated with weak temperature (0.07ºC) and Eh anomalies (80mV) less than 3 meters above the mats. These data suggest that the mats are supported by reducing and slightly warm fluids seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2001 plume only; 2007 towed video did not confirm activity
Discovery References (text):
(Plume only) Edmonds, H.N. et al. (2003) Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Nature 421: 252-256.
Other References (text):
Michael et al. (2001) Results of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition - AMORE 2001- Seafloor Spreading at the Top of the World. InterRidge News 10(2): 57-60
Michael, P.J. et al. (2003) Magmatic and amagmatic seafloor generation at the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean. Nature 423: 956-961
Baker et al., 2004, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, 5, Q08002, Hydrothermal venting in magma deserts: The ultraslow-spreading Gakkel and Southwest Indian Ridges, doi:10.1029/2004GC000712
(Evidence for explosive eruption) Sohn, R.A. et al. (2008) Explosive volcanism on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean. Nature 453: 1236-1238
Pedersen, R. B., et al. (2010) Hydrothermal Activity at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges, in Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges (eds P. A. Rona, C. W. Devey, J. Dyment and B. J. Murton), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.. doi: 10.1029/2008GM000783