Notes on Vent Field Description:
location is associated more to Azores hotspot than to Terceira Rift or N MAR, thus listing as intra-plate volcano; need to add region category; off Punta Espalamaca, Faial Island, the Azores; Munaro et al. (2010): "Although shallower parts of this site have been known for a few years by various researchers and staff at the University of the Azores, the FREEsubNET workshop presented an ideal opportunity to map the site, especially deeper areas, in detail. The first indications that this site might be significant were the bubbles that seep from the seabed through soft sediments at around the depth (35m) of the dive area. The seabed landscape is mostly sand with a few scattered rocks and some larger rocky structures... There is also some urgency to examine and document this site as it is believed that shallow vent areas are ephemeral and last for several months but not necessarily years like deep water vents. However, it was confirmed that activity in that area was already present on backscatter images from 2003"; Rajasabapathy et al. (2015): "Gaseous discharges from the vents are mainly composed of CO2, with a low concentration of methane, a temperature of 35 C and a pH of 5.7"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2010 or earlier likely SCUBA
Discovery References (text):
Munaro et al. (2010) Azores FREEsubNET Workshop: Habitat Mapping of Espalamaca Vents and Monte da Guia, http://www.horta.uac.pt/intradop/images/stories/eventos/freesubnet/ReportWorkshopAzores.pdf, accessed 4 June 2015.
Other References (text):
Rajasabapathy et al. (2015) Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent. IJSEM 65: 692-697, doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.070805-0.
Couto, R.P., et al. (2015) Shallow-water hydrothermal vents in the Azores (Portugal). Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada / Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 15(4), doi:10.5894/rgci584.