New Hebrides Arc, Volcano A
Notes on Vent Field Description:
note that this database listing combines 3 submarine volcanoes, Epia, Epib, and Epic, into 1 listing for "Epi Caldera" in Fig. 1 of Greene and Exon (1988); Cruise Summary FR08/2001: "east of Epi and around 2.5 miles east of 'discolored water'", "same area examined by Exon and Cronan in 1974", "results of the methane analyses reveal a large anomaly... confirm that Cioan volcano has significant hydrothermal activity", "Camera tow VV-05 showed fields of pumice boulders and pebbles, fish, coral and other marine life and in places milky cloudy water. The CTD mounted on the camera cage revealed 2 zones of coincident salinity decrease and temperature increase... No hydrothermal deposits were seen."; R/V Sonne Cruise SO-229 shimmering water 6 degrees C above ambient
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2013 ROV Kiel6000; 1974 sediment samples only; 2001 plume and camera tow (did not confirm activity)
Discovery References (text):
(sediment samples only) Exon & Cronan, Mar. Geol., 52, M43-M52, 1983, Hydrothermal iron deposits and associated sediments from submarine volcanoes off Vanuatu, southwest Pacific.
McConachy, T.F., and Binns, R., RV Franklin Cruise Summary FR08/2001, http://www.cmar.csiro.au/datacentre/process/data_files/cruise_docs/fr200108sum.pdf, accessed 29 May 2015.
R/V Sonne Cruise SO-229, http://epic.awi.de/37102/35/SO229_wr.pdf, accessed 1 June 2015
Other References (text):
Greene and Exon (1988) Acoustic stratigraphy and hydrothermal activity within Epi Submarine Caldera, Vanuatu, New Hebrides Arc. Geo-Marine Letters 8: 121-129.
[McConachy et al., CSIRO Exploration and Mining Report 881F, Final cruise report FR08-2001, 318 pp., 2001].