Notes on Vent Field Description:
need to add region for Canary hotspot; Ferrera et al. (2015): "submarine eruption off the island of El Hierro started on October 10th, 2011. Geophysical surveys determined that on October 23rd the active volcano was located at a depth of 350 m at 27°37’07”N-17°59’28”W. In January 2012, the cone had risen to a depth of 130 m and in February it reached its maximum elevation of 88 m below sea level", "The discharge of high temperature hydrothermal fluids, magmatic gases and volcanic particles during October and November produced warming of the water column and dramatic changes in seawater chemistry, including a significant decrease in pH and oxygen and an increase in iron and nutrients near the volcano"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Ferrera et al. (2015): "we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed."
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2011 water column sampling
Discovery References (text):
Ferrera I, Arístegui J, González JM, Montero MF, Fraile-Nuez E, Gasol JM (2015) Transient Changes in Bacterioplankton Communities Induced by the Submarine Volcanic Eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands). PLoS ONE 10(2): e0118136. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118136.