Central Cone [includes Aquarium (non-vent), Boulder vent, Fe-Mn Crust, Floc Storm]
Eastern Cone (includes Barnacle Beach, Black Forest)
IAB, low-K andesite to andesites
Notes on Vent Field Description:
shallowest (345 m) black smokers yet discovered as of 2009; temperature 242 C; interaction of hydrothermal vent and coral reef communities at 188-205 m depth; Hein et al. (2010) describe dives with ROV Hyper-Dolphin in 2009 and 2010; Stevens et al. (2015): "The 195 m depth contour marked the appearance of perceptible ambient light and the beginning of an extraordinary transition from a chemosynthetic productivity regime to one dominated by photosynthesis.... At this depth, visible shimmering water indicated widespread hydrothermal venting."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
The dives near hydrothermal vents at East Diamante volcano (between 300-350 meters depth) encountered animals such as crabs, basket stars, crabs, barnacles, and snails (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/marianas/multimedia04.html); Stevens et al. (2015): "vent-obligate invertebrates at Barnacle Beach (~460 m) belonged to a purely chemosynthetic food web, non-vent organisms at Aquarium (179 m) had diets based on the products of photosynthesis, and most of the invertebrates at Black Forest (349 m) and Central Cone vent sites (247-288 m) had mixed chemosynthetic/photosynthetic diets"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2004 ROV ROPOS; 2003 plume only
Discovery References (text):
Butterfield, D. et al. (2004) Overview of Vent Fluid Chemistry From the Marianas Volcanic Arc. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2004, abstract #V44A-01
(plume only) Embley, R, et al. (2004) Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. EOS, Trans. AGU 85(4): 37, 40.
Other References (text):
Embley, RW et al. (2007) Exploring the submarine ring of fire Mariana Arc - Western Pacific. Oceanography 20(4): 68-79.
Hein, J. R., et al. (2010) Discovery Of An Extensive Hydrothermal Sulfide/Sulfate Mounds Field In East Diamante Caldera, Mariana Volcanic Arc. AGU Fall Meeting Abstract #OS21A-1485.
Stevens, C.J. et al. (2015) Obligate hydrothermal vent fauna at East Diamante submarine volcano (Mariana Arc) exploit photosynthetic and chemosynthetic carbon sources. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 525: 25-39, doi: 10.3354/meps11229.