Notes on Vent Field Description:
located in Blanco Fracture Zone (= Blanco Transform Fault); Dziak et al. (1996): "The hydrothermal mound consists of Fe-rich hydrothermal precipitate and bacterial mats. Temperatures to 60 C were measured 30 cm below the surface. This is the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone", "albeit in an extensional regime along the transform"; EBD is a pull-apart basin along oceanic-transform fault; S. Petersen lists tectonic setting as transform fault and lists "sulfate chimneys"; Hein et al. (2008): "A Tiburon ROV dive within the East Blanco Depression (EBD) increased the mapped extent of a known hydrothermal field by an order of magnitude... Silica-hematite mounds have not previously been found on the deep ocean floor" (Tiburon Dive: http://www.mbari.org/expeditions/ridges2005/august_12.htm)
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1994 ROV U.S. Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle
Discovery References (text):
Dziak et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 873-876, 1996, Detection of and response to a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm on the Western Blanco Transform Fault Zone, doi:10.1029/96GL00240.
Other References (text):
Juteau et al., A submersible study in the western Blanco fracture Zone, N.E. Pacific: Structure and evolution during the last 1.6 Ma. Mar. Geophys. Res , 17, 395-430, 1995
Hein, J. et al. (1999) Diffuse-flow hydrothermal field in an oceanic fracture zone setting, Northeast Pacific: Deposit composition. Exploration and Mining Geology 8: 299-322.
Hein et al. (2008) Metalliferous Sediment and a Silica-Hematite Deposit within the Blanco Fracture Zone, Northeast Pacific. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology 26: 317-339.