Notes on Vent Field Description:
steep-walled, 50-m-wide cylindrical crater on the north flank, about 75 m below the summit, is at least 135 m deep and was observed to emit cloudy hydrothermal fluid; During a NOAA expedition in 2006, scientists observed Cauldron, a convecting, black pool of liquid sulfur with a partly solidified, undulating sulfur crust at a depth of 420 m below the summit of Daikoku, and temperature > 200 C; located within U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument (http://www.fws.gov/marianastrenchmarinemonument/)
Notes Relevant to Biology:
extensive biological communities with new species tonguefish, tubeworms, snails, and crabs (NOAA cruise report 2006)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2004 ROV ROPOS; 2003 plume only
Discovery References (text):
(plume only): Embley, R et al (2004) Explorations of Mariana Arc volcanoes reveal new hydrothermal systems. EOS, Trans. AGU 85(4): 37, 40
(ROV) Chadwick, W. et al. (2004) The Geologic Setting of Hydrothermal Vents at Mariana Arc Submarine Volcanoes: High-Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2004, abstract #V43F-06.
Other References (text):
NOAA "Submarine Ring of Fire" cruise report (2006): http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06fire/logs/summary/media/srof06_cruisereport_final.pdf
Embley, RW et al. (2007) Exploring the submarine ring of fire Mariana Arc - Western Pacific. Oceanography 20(4): 68-79.