Notes on Vent Field Description:
Rona et al. (2005): "A 70 km-long, 1000 m-thick megaplume was detected in the water column up to 1400 m above the CR axial valley centered at 6.05N, 60.95E in August 2003, the first clear evidence of high-temperature hydrothermal activity on the CR"; Murton et al. (2006): "the first evidence for an unusually large event plume that originated from the slow-spreading (3 cm/yr full-rate) Carlsberg Ridge in the NW Indian Ocean. At 70 km long, up to 4540 km3 in volume and with up to 24 × 10^16 J of excess heat, this event plume was substantially larger than previous ones and demonstrates that dispersion of hydrothermal heat and biological products from slow spreading ridges may be more significant and effective than hitherto imagined"; 2003 cruise website: http://www.classroomatsea.net/carlsberg/index.html; Kamesh Raju (2008): "Prominent optical signatures indicative of an active hydrothermal field were noticed over the CR. Further investigations are required to locate the origin of the identified plume."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2003 plume only; 2007 plume only
Discovery References (text):
(plume only) Murton, B. et al. GRL, 33, L10608, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026048, 2006, Detection of an unusually large hydrothermal event plume above the slow-spreading Carlsberg Ridge: NW Indian Ocean
(plume only) Kamesh Raju, K.A. (2008) Recent cruise onboard R/V Sonne to the Carlsberg Ridge and the Andaman Sea. InterRidge News 17: 34-35.
Other References (text):
Murton, B. J. et al. (2005) A mega-plume over the Carlsberg Ridge yields insights into volcanic events and hydrothermal processes, Abstract:S4-HP-19T, Workshop on Tectonic & Oceanic Processes along the Indian Ocean Ridge System. National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 India, 19 - 21 January 2005
Murton, B. J. et al. (2005) A Huge Event-Plume Discovered Over the Carlsberg Ridge: The First Outside the Pacific Ocean, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2005, abstract #OS21C-03
Rona et al. (2005) Carslberg Ridge and Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Slow-spreading Apparent Analogs. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2005, abstract #OS33A-1455
Ray et al. (2008) Water-column geochemical anomalies associated with the remnants of a mega plume : A case study after CR-2003 hydrothermal event in Carlsberg Ridge, NW Indian Ocean. Current science 95: 355-360
Reed, C., Marine science: Boiling points. Nature 439, 905-907(2006), doi:10.1038/439905a.