Notes on Vent Field Description:
Ray et al. (2012): "Prominent optical backscatter and thermal anomalies coupled with chemical (e.g., ΔE, 3He, Mn) signatures in seawater demonstrated the existence of hydrothermal sources on off-axis highs on the south wall of the Carlsberg Ridge. Pronounced backscatter anomalies and anomalous DMn concentrations suggest a high temperature hydrothermal source for the plume."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
Ray, D., K. A. Kamesh Raju, E. T. Baker, A. Srinivas Rao, A. V. Mudholkar, J. E. Lupton, L. Surya Prakash, R. B. Gawas, and T. Vijaya Kumar (2012), Hydrothermal plumes over the Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q01009, doi:10.1029/2011GC003888.