Notes on Vent Field Description:
Pitcairn Hotspot; Fe & Mn crusts at summit of Pitcairn seamounts; Stoffers et al. (1990): "Water samples at the 400-500 m depth slightly to the east of the summit showed methane anomalies... indicating that the volcano is presently hydrothermally active"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1999 submersible Nautile; 1989 plume only
Discovery References (text):
Stoffers, P. et al. (1990) Active Pitcairn hotspot found. Marine Geology 95: 51-55.
Scholten et al. (2004) Hydrothermal Iron and Manganese Crusts from the Pitcairn Hotspot Region, pp. 375-405 in Hékinian et al. (eds) Oceanic hotspots: intraplate submarine magmatism and tectonism. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Other References (text):
[(TV grab samples) Stoffers et al. (1993) Comparative mineralogy and geochemistry of hydrothermal iron-rich crusts from the Pitcairn, Teahitia-Mehitia, and Macdonald hot spot areas of the S.W. Pacific. Mar. Georesourc. Geotechnol. 11, 45-86.]
Glasby et al. (1997) A model for the formation of hydrothermal manganese crusts from the Pitcairn Island hotspot. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61: 4583-4597.