Notes on Vent Field Description:
McConachy et al. (2001): "Gas bubbling, subsurface sonic activity, and venting of hydrothermal fluids with temperatures around 50ºC are known to occur on the summit at around 10 m depth, and ferruginous oxide deposits several mm thick are common", "Banua Wuhu is a parasitic feature on the north-western side of adjacent Mahenetang Island,"; McConachy et al. (2004): "Banua Wuhu, is an occasionally emergent site of known volcanic and shallow hydrothermal activity"
Notes Relevant to Biology:
note: the hydrothermal vents are considered a "natural disturbance" to the coral reefs in this area (Tomascik et al. 1997)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1996 or earlier, likely by SCUBA
Discovery References (text):
Other References (text):
Heikoop et al. (1996) Modern iron ooids from a shallow-marine volcanic setting: Mahengetang, Indonesia. Geology 24: 759-762
Tomascik et al. (1997) The ecology of the Indonesian Seas. Part one. Periplus Editions
McConachy, T., Binns, R., Permana, H. (2001) First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001, abstract #T52A-0923
[McConachy et al., CSIRO Exploration and Mining Report 881F, Final Cruise Report FR08-2001, 318 pp., 2001].
McConachy, T. F., H. Permana, R. A. Binns, I. Zulkarnain, J. M. Parr, C. J. Yeats, N. D. Hananto, B. Priadi, S. Burhanuddin, and E. P. Utomo (2004) Recent Investigations of Submarine Hydrothermal Activity in Indonesia. PACRIM 2004, Adelaide, SA, 19-22 September 2004, 161- 172.