Notes on Vent Field Description:
Heikoop et al. (1996): 60 C at 10-20 cm below sediment surface
Notes Relevant to Biology:
note: the hydrothermal vents are considered a "natural disturbance" to the coral reefs in this area (Tomascik et al. 1997)
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
Discovery References (text):
Heikoop et al. (1996) Corals as Proxy Recorders of Volcanic Activity: Evidence from Banda Api, Indonesia. Palaios 11: 286-292.
Other References (text):
Tomascik et al. (1997) The ecology of the Indonesian Seas. Part one. Periplus Editions.