Axial Volcano, South Rift Zone
Lava Flow 98
2011LavaFlow sites (Bag-1, Bag-2, Boca, Cottonball, MBARI-1, MBARI-2, MBARI-3, MBARI-4, Skadi-1, Skadi-2, Skadi-3, Skadi-4, Skadi-5, Snow Globe, Subway, Subway-1, Subway-2, Subway-3)
Marker 33 (buried in 2011, but there is a vent in the same location in 2011 lava)
Marker N3 (buried in 2011, but there is a vent in the same location in 2011 lava)
Spanish Steps (N of International District)
Trevi (N of International District)
Marker 113 (SW of International District)
Bag City (SW of International District)
Coquille (SW of International District and includes vent sites Casper and Vixen)
Notes on Vent Field Description:
note: the International District vent field is within a larger area of vents in the South Rift Zone; position and temperature given for El Guapo large active sulfide chimney; temperature El Guapo 323 C in 2015 (W. Chadwick, pers. comm.); note: 1986 submersible Pisces IV Dive 1730, may have been preceded by camera tows; Embley et al. (1990): "Although no high-temperature vents have been discovered along the SRZ, this area seems to contain the most areally extensive venting"; "We first sampled Castle vent, which is part of the field,
in 1998. We... didn't find the active smokers until 2007" (D. Butterfield, pers. comm.); area affected by eruption and lava flow in 1998 and 2011; "Marker 33 Virtual Site" webpage accessed 23 April 2015, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/eoi/nemo/explorer/m33.html; WHOI YouTube video accessed 23 April 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jezGKcQt4ZE&index=1&list=PL1CGd4Scv4GJsaaFRzItk-btFI757bH8f; U.S. Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) Primary Node PN3B is situated near this vent field, webpage accessed 23 April 2015, http://oceanobservatories.org/infrastructure/regional-scale-nodes/; vent sites buried 2011: Circ, Cloud, Crevice, Easy, FeCity, Joystick, Magnesia, Milky, Minisnow, Nascent, Oxide, Roof, Snail, Snow, The Pit; Axial volcano is in Cobb-Eikelberg hot spot chain;
Notes Relevant to Biology:
Embley et al. (1999): "partial or total burial of pre-existing mature vent communities"
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
1986 submersible Pisces IV
Discovery References (text):
[ASHES (Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emissions Studies) Expedition (1986) Pisces submersible exploration of a high-temperature vent field in the caldera of Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Eos Trans. AGU, 67, 1027.]
Other References (text):
Embley et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95, B8, 12785-12812, 1990, High-Resolution Studies of the Summit of Axial Volcano, doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12785
Herzig et al. (1997) Hydrothermal activity and rift-induced tracers at Axial (Juan de Fuca ridge): Results of cruise SO-109 of R/V Sonne-ROPOS. InterRidge News 6(1): 35-38.
Embley et al. (1999) 1998 eruption of Axial Volcano: multibeam anomalies and seafloor observations. Geophys Res Letters 26: 3425-3428
Kelley, D. et al. (2014) Establishing a new era of submarine volcanic observatories: Cabling Axial Seamount and the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Marine Geology 352, 426-450, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.03.010.