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Axial Seamount, CASM

Name Alias(es): 
Axial Volcano, CASM
Area 2B
MGDS_FeatureID lowest in hierarchy: 
Vent Sites: 
Lamphere Chimneys
T&S Spires
Maximum Temperature: 
Location on map: 
National Jurisdiction: 
Maximum or Single Reported Depth (mbsl): 
Tectonic setting: 
Full Spreading Rate (mm/a): 
Volcano Number (if applicable): 
Host Rock: 
Deposit Type: 
PMS, polymetallic massive sulfides
Notes on Vent Field Description: 
position given for T&S vent; temperature measured in 2015 was 291 C (W. Chadwick, pers. comm.); vent field and lava flow in northern area of caldera; small vent field with active sulfide deposits and low-temperature Fe oxide and silica chimneys in the caldera of an axial seamount; "CASM Virtual Site" webpage accessed 23 April 2015,, "The CASM site is noteworthy because it was the first active hydrothermal vent site discovered in the NE Pacific";, accessed 16 Sept. 2015, "The high-temperature vents at CASM are located down inside an older eruptive fissure that is 20 m (64 ft) wide and 10 m (32 ft) deep"; Area 2B in Crane et al. (1985); note North Rift Zone diffuse flow vents to north of CASM (Herzig et al. 1997) and eruption in 2015 (, accessed 16 Sept. 2015); Axial volcano is in Cobb-Eikelberg hot spot chain;
Notes Relevant to Biology: 
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first): 
1983 submersible Pisces IV
Discovery References (text): 
[CASM (Canadian American Seamount) expedition (1985) Hydrothermal vents on an axis seamount of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Nature 313: 212-214.]
Other References (text): 
(towed thermistors indicated geothermal region only) Crane et al., J. Geophys. Res., 90, 727-744, 1985, The Distribution of Geothermal Fields on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, doi:10.1029/JB090iB01p00727
Embley et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95, B8, 12785-12812, 1990, High-Resolution Studies of the Summit of Axial Volcano, doi:10.1029/JB095iB08p12785
Herzig et al. (1997) Hydrothermal activity and rift-induced tracers at Axial (Juan de Fuca ridge): Results of cruise SO-109 of R/V Sonne-ROPOS. InterRidge News 6(1): 35-38.
Witze, A. (2015) Massive underwater volcano erupts: Event at Axial Seamount tests new deep-sea observing network. Nature News, 01 May 2015, doi:10.1038/nature.2015.17463.