Notes on Vent Field Description:
Pedersen et al. (2010): "massive sulphides were recovered … where the Lena trough transitions into the Gakkel Ridge... dredged from the southern flank of a saddle in the center of the axial valley at nearly 83 N"; Boetius et al. (2014): "In 2001, the two-ice-breaker mission AMORE (RV POLARSTERN and USCGC HEALY) detected hydrothermal plumes and evidence for seafloor venting associated with volcanic ridges rising from the rift valley floor of 4.2 km depth (Edmonds et al., 2003; Michael et al., 2003). The AURORA expedition in July 2014 (RV POLARSTERN Cruise PS86) targeted this “Aurora” field at the SW limit of Gakkel Ridge, to investigate its habitats, communities and their energy sources... Using a towed camera-, and multisensor- platform (OFOS) we located active venting as the source of this plume together with inactive chimneys and associated craters on the SW flank of Mt. Aurora."
Notes Relevant to Biology:
abundant macrofauna observed on camera tow
Year and How Discovered (if active, visual confirmation is listed first):
2001 shimmering water in camera tow and sulfide chimney in dredge
Discovery References (text):
Michael et al (2001) The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition -AMORE 2001- Seafloor Spreading at the Top of the World. AGU Fall Meeting 2001, Abstract T11B-0853
Edmonds, H.N. et al. (2003) Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Nature 421: 252-256.
Other References (text):
Michael et al. (2001) Results of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition - AMORE 2001- Seafloor Spreading at the Top of the World. InterRidge News 10(2): 57-60
Michael, P.J. et al. (2003) Magmatic and amagmatic seafloor generation at the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean. Nature 423: 956-961
Baker et al., 2004, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, 5, Q08002, Hydrothermal venting in magma deserts: The ultraslow-spreading Gakkel and Southwest Indian Ridges, doi:10.1029/2004GC000712.
Pedersen, R. B., Thorseth, I. H., NygåRd, T. E., Lilley, M. D. and Kelley, D. S. (2010) Hydrothermal Activity at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges, in Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges (eds P. A. Rona, C. W. Devey, J. Dyment and B. J. Murton), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/2008GM000783.
Boetius, A., et al. (2014) Exploring the Habitability of Ice-covered Waterworlds: The Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System of the Aurora Mount at Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean (82 54’ N, 6 15'W, 3900 m). AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract B24A-02.